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FOOTNOTES of
1976 COSTES PALAMAS SOCIETY LECTURE R O M A N I S M AND COSTES PALAMAS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[1] For further details concerning this approach to European unity see my study Romanism, Romania, Roumeli, Thessaloniki (in Greek) 1975, pp. 55, 271-277. Translation of the word Graeculus used by the ancients, medieval and moder

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [2] Translation of the word Graeculus used by the ancients, medieval and modern Romans (of Greece) in a pejorative sense for those who are slavish to foreigners

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [3] See p22 footnote no. 31. The name Regas is a modern form of Rex

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [4] Lecture delivered March 21, 1976 in the City Hall of Mesolongi on the North Eastern tip of the Gulf of Corinth commemorating the 150th anniversary of the attempted escape to the nearby mountains of the population and defenders on April 10-11, 1826 after a siege of one year brought to a crisis point by a successful blockade of the city by the Turkish navy which cut off access to the sea from which the city was receiving supplies and reinforcements. It was here that Lord Byron came and died and it was here that the family of Costes Palamas, the national poet of Romiosyne (the Greek form of Romanism) was established. In the attempted escape some 3000 were slaughtered by the Turks and only about 1400 reached the safety of the mountains. Some 2000 who remained behind blew themselves up and about 1000 were taken captive by the Turks. I have purposely used the term Romanism instead of Romiosyne 1) because they mean the same and 2) because what Europeans call Romanism is not Romanism at all, as far as the East Romans are concerned but is more accurately called Francosyne or Frankdom or Frankism, being a Germanized form of Romanism developed on the basis of feudalism and a papacy transformed by its German, Frankish, Lombard, and Norman captor after the Romans (East and West) lost it in 1009. The general historical positions of this paper are expounded in detail my book Romanism, Romania, Roumeli (in Greek), Thessaloniki 1975.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [5] See note 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [6] A man from Roumeli, Turkish rendition of Romania, meaning land of the Romans, used by the Turks and the Romans as the name of the Balkans till 1912 and today used unofficially for the area North of Peloponessus and for Thrace in Bulgaria and Greece.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [7] Costes Palamas, "Apanta", vol VI, pp.273-281

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [8] Ibid., pp. 273-274

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

      [9] Ibid., pp. 275-276

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [10] A man from Morea in the Peloponessus. The name Morea is probably of the same origin as Morocco, both stemming from the Roman Maurus.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [11] An Albanian-speaking Roman.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [12] Revolutionary hero and leader from Mavromati, Thessaly.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [13] Revolutionary hero and leader of Arvanitic stock.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [14] Revolutionary hero and naval leader from the Island of Psara.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [15] Costes Palamas, Ibid., pp. 276-277.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [16] Ibid., p. 277.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  [17] Ibid., p. 277.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [18] The theoretician for transforming a section of the Greek speaking Romans of the Southern part of the Balkans and the Western part of Turkish Anatolia into descendants of Ancient Greeks. He was Dutch and Paris-trained and translated Strabo's Geography, especially for Napoleon's use in his Nile campaign.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [19] P. CHRESTOU, The Adventures of the National Names of the Hellenes, Thessaloniki 1960, pp. 50-51. J. S. ROMANIDES, Romanism, Romania, Roumeli, Thessaloniki 1975, pp. 47, 56, 208, 209, 213, 217, 284, 331.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [20] J. S. ROMANIDES, Ibid., pp. 19-57, 128 ff., 205-249.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [21] P. CHRESTOU, Ibid., pp. 40-45,. J. S. ROMANIDES, Ibid., pp. 47 ff. and passim.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [22] By Neo-greeks we mean followers of A. Koraes. See note 15. Koraes began the campaign to convince the Greek-speaking Romans that they are pure Hellenes whose forefathers were enslaved to the Romans and "Byzantines."

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [23] The Vlach are Latin-speaking Romans of the Balkans who were commonly bilingual, speaking Greek also, until the Russian and French inspired anti-"Greek" propaganda convinced the Vlach of modern day Romania that they are not one nation with the Greek-speaking Romans, now called Byzantines. The South Vlach, however, were not affected by such propaganda and are on the whole bilingual.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [24] The Phanariotes were the wealthy and educated society of Constantinople New Rome, grouped around the Ecumenical Patriarchate situated in the part of the City called Phanar, meaning lighthouse. The Ottoman Turks used these Romans in the administration of the Ottoman Empire.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [25] Humoristic writer who used historical themes and noted for his books on the Franks and Crusaders.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [26] Athens 1971, p. 15.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [27] The argument has been regularly appearing in Turkish newspapers for about two years, on since Greece pulled out of NATO. It has made its way into European and American papers and was publicly supported by an American general of NATO, meaning that it has probably found its way into the Pentagon, having come from the American State Department.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [28] Athens 1901, pp. 12 ff.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

      [29] Ibid., pp. 4-5.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [30] Ibid., pp. 18-19

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [31] Ibid., pp. 20.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [32] C. PALAMAS, Ibid., p. 280.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [33] J. S. ROMANIDES, Romanism, Romania, Roumeli, pp. 194-200.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [34] Scholar, poet, and author who inspired pre-revolutionary Roman society in the Balkans and Asia Minor to a desire to overthrow Ottoman rule and replace it with a Hellenic-type democracy in which the Roman Orthodox Christians and Turkish and other Moslems would have equal status of citizens of a commonwealth with such things as state-supported free education. He was betrayed by Austria and executed by the Turks in 1798.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [35] Political leader of the new Hellenic State who headed the party under French patronage.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [36] J. S. ROMANIDES, Romanism, Romania, Roumeli, pp. 199-200.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  [37] Political leader of the new Hellenic State who headed the party under English patronage. George Kallergis headed the Russian party.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [38] J. S. ROMANIDES, Ibid., p. 200. The final protocol referred to is that of London, January 30, 1836. In this series of protocols and other official documents the term Greek is not equivalent to Hellene, but rather Romaios (Roman) in Turkish. In Greek translations the term Greek in the protocols is usually rendered by Hellene thereby making it impossible for the Hellenes today to understand the Turkish and English positions on Cyprus and the Turkish position on the Aegean.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [39] C. PALAMAS, Ibid., pp. 278-279.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [40] ARGYRES EPHTALIOTES, History of Romanism, Athens 1901, vol. 1, pp. 37-38.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [41] C. PALAMAS, Ibid., p. 274.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [42] On this position concerning the origins of European feudalism see J. S. ROMANIDES, Romanism, Romania, Roumeli, pp. 21, 46, 55, 121-126, 135-145, 311-316.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [43] In Turkish and Arabic the Greek language was called Roman and is still called so in Turkish with survivals in Arabic.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [44] J. S. ROMANIDES, Romanism, Romania, Roumeli, pp. 39-46.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [45] DIO CASSIUS, Roman History, XLIV, 19: SUETONIUS, The Lives of the Caesars, I, LXXXII.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [46] SATIRICUM II, 60 ff. See P. Christou, Ibid., p. 20.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [47] J. S. ROMANIDES, Ibid., passim. especially, pp. 205-249.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [48] Ibid.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

      [49] Called Komitatzides and organized by the Russians in the middle of the 19th century in order to transform the Romans who had any kind of knowledge of any kind of Slavic into Slavs, in order that Russia may carve out pieces of the Balkans for her Panslavism.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [50] See note 31.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [51] A Roman Orthodox priest whom the Turks captured and tried to forcefully convert to Islam. Conversion meant that one ceased being Roman, having become a Turk.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [52] C. PALAMAS, Ibid., p. 273.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            [53] Ibid., p. 279.