First Published: http://www.friesian.com/romania.htm


The maps are those of Tony Belmonte, edited to eliminate references to "Byzantium" and with some corrections and additions. I am no longer able to find Tony's historical atlas on the Web, and links that turn up have gone dead. I hope that it will soon return to the Internet. Corrections and additions are based on The Penguin Atlas of Ancient History (Colin McEvedy, 1967), The Penguin Atlas of Medieval History (Colin McEvedy, 1961), The New Penguin Atlas of Medieval History (Colin McEvedy, 1992), The Anchor Atlas of World History, Volume I (Hermann Kinder, Werner Hilgemann, Ernest A. Menze, and Harald and Ruth Bukor, 1974), and various prose histories. Some material on earlier history may be found at "Historical Background to Greek Philosophy" and "Historical Background to Hellenistic Philosophy". Discussion of the period covered by this page may be found in "Decadence, Rome and Romania, the Emperors Who Weren't, and Other Reflections on Roman History". This page is continued and supplemented by the material in "Successors of Rome: Germania, Francia, & Russia, 395-1945" and "Rivals to Rome, and The Ottoman Sultâns".

I. FIRST EMPIRE, "ROME," 27 BC-284, 310 years

275 AD

II. SECOND EMPIRE, EARLY "ROMANIA," 284-610, Era of Diocletian 1-327, 326 years

  • A. "DOMINATE," 284-379, 95 years

    290 AD

  • B. CRISIS OF THE FIFTH CENTURY, 379-476, 97 Years

    410 AD

    451 AD

    476 AD

  • C. THE EAST ALONE, 476-518, 42 Years

    530 AD

  • D. RETURNING TO THE WEST, 518-610, 92 years

    565 AD

    600 AD

    III. THIRD EMPIRE, MIDDLE "ROMANIA," EARLY "BYZANTIUM," 610-1059, Era of Diocletian 327-776, 449 years

    1060 AD--height of Middle Romanian Empire

    IV. FOURTH EMPIRE, LATE "ROMANIA/BYZANTIUM," 1059-1453, Era of Diocletian 776-1170, 394 years

    Rome and Romania is continued in The Ottoman Sultans, 1290-1924 AD and Successors of Rome: Germania, Francia, & Russia, 395-1945.

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    Copyright (c) 1996, 1998 Kelley L. Ross, Ph.D. All Rights Reserved

    First Published: http://www.friesian.com/romania.htm